By the same token, however, philosophers of mathematics have sought to characterize what makes one proof more desirable than another when both are logically sound. The terms philosophy of mathematics and mathematical philosophy are frequently used as synonyms.[1]. Embodied mind theories hold that mathematical thought is a natural outgrowth of the human cognitive apparatus which finds itself in our physical universe. Where Quine suggested that mathematics was indispensable for our best scientific theories, and therefore should be accepted as a body of truths talking about independently existing entities, Field suggested that mathematics was dispensable, and therefore should be considered as a body of falsehoods not talking about anything real. Trending in Philosophy of Mathematics Matemáticas y Platonismo(S). "Die logizistische Grundlegung der Mathematik", Hendricks, Vincent F. and Hannes Leitgeb (eds. More of them later. The situation is usually slightly better when I meet other philosophers – they know that it has something to do with Bertrand Russell; sometimes they will mention Wittgenstein or even Frege or Gödel. Logicism holds that mathematics is reducible to principles of pure logic. In his work on the divine proportion, H. E. Huntley relates the feeling of reading and understanding someone else's proof of a theorem of mathematics to that of a viewer of a masterpiece of art - the reader of a proof has a similar sense of exhilaration at understanding as the original author of the proof, much as, he argues, the viewer of a masterpiece has a sense of exhilaration similar to the original painter or sculptor. For example, if it is true that: However, in certain contexts, this breaks down. These have been called Benacerraf’s twin puzzles of Referential and Epistemic Access. Oxford: Clarendon Press, Brouwer, J (1949) ‘Consciousness, Philosophy and Mathematics’, in Benacerraf & Putnam (1983), pp90-6, Dummett, M (1973) ‘The philosophical basis of Intuitionistic Logic’, in Benacerraf & Putnam (1983), pp97-130, Field, H (1980) Science without numbers. Typical responses include surprise that mathematics has a philosophy, complete bewilderment, or else they conclude that I must do some form of esoteric mathematics and confess that they could never get their head round maths when they were at school. In keeping with Quine and Putnam's overall philosophies, this is a naturalistic argument. Different positions such as platonism, intuitionism and formalism offer different ways of tackling these questions; structuralism on the other hand, offers a radically different approach, providing a new perspective on the debates. Unlike other forms of knowledge, where we learn by experience, mathematical knowledge seems to be purely concerned with the realm of thought. This view dominated the philosophy of mathematics through the time of Frege and of Russell, but was brought into question by developments in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Philip Davis and Reuben Hersh have commented that the sense of mathematical beauty is universal amongst practicing mathematicians. He argued that in most sentences, terms which stood for the same object could be exchanged without changing the truth value of the sentence. This is Platonism proper (with a capital ‘p’) because, as with Plato’s theory of the forms, an abstract realm is postulated as well as a means of being acquainted with that realm. Most mathematicians are reasonably certain that this is true, but as proving it would involve finding the prime components of infinitely many even numbers, such a proof could never be completed.

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