Chapter 2, “Objects and Entities,” provides a rigorous look at the concepts of pitch, pitch class, intervals, pc set, and the interval content of sets. Staff (or Stave) - a set of 5 lines (and 4 spaces between those lines) that music notes and symbols are written or printed on. Two 3. Any collection of items can form a set. in set theory, inverting a set means flipping it upside-down. I consider set theory to be one of the most important theories in the history of music analysis in the Twentieth Century: it offers an analytical model of a particular musical style, namely atonal music, for which Schuijer begins the chapter thus: “Pitch-class set theory is a musical application of mathematical set theory… class set theory’s conceptualization of musical structure” (27). Treble Clef (or G Clef) - a clef that wraps around the second line from the bottom of the staff, showing that this line is where the note “G” is found. Inversional Symmetry This is a property of a set which is able to map onto itself through inversion at some value of n. If the intervals between 2. set of rules. The examples are chosen from the theoretical work and from the compositions of Olivier Messiaen (1908-1992), one of the most influential twentieth century composers and pedagogues. If anything they are often trying to break them! 2 Basic Group Theory 1 Introduction In 2002, a music theorist by the name of Julian Hook published a paper in the Journal of Music Theory titled, \Uniform Triadic Transformations." (Caution: sometimes ⊂ is used the way we are using ⊆.) we can do the this with math by taking all non-zero numbers and subtracting them from 12. the original set when inverted, becomes normal form the normal form of a set is the most compact ordering of the set. For example, D, F, A# is (2, 5, T). Set Theory. which leads to … To transpose a set down by n half steps, subtract n from each pitch class in the set. that music not es and symbols are written or printed on. Most other popular musical systems in the world are still mostly modal. Modes have been used in music long before the Western world started to favour harmony, and settled for the major and minor scales. Modes can be defined at will, and don’t have to be based on seven notes; this just happens to be the most useful set in Western music. 4. set theory as it is theorized and applied by Allen Forte. 1. It is natural for us to classify items into groups, or sets, and consider how those sets overlap with each other. To transpose a set up by n half steps, add n to each pitch class in the set. Set. in the set, or half that number in the case of the tritone, then the set will be transpositionally symmetrical. Subsets A set A is a subset of a set B iff every element of A is also an element of B.Such a relation between sets is denoted by A ⊆ B.If A ⊆ B and A ≠ B we call A a proper subset of B and write A ⊂ B. so while a lot of people think music theory is about learning the rules for how to write music, that’s not quite right. Download PDF Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to show through particular examples how group theory is used in music. ... An art collector might own a collection of paintings, while a music lover might keep a collection of CDs. Musical Composition as Applied Mathematics: Set Theory and Probability in lannis Xenakis's Herma 143 Xenakis lends structure to the set-theoretic procedures by defining two sequences of operations that lead to an identical fmal set, F, whose contents are represented by the Venn diagram in Figure 1. Ling 310, adapted from UMass Ling 409, Partee lecture notes March 1, 2006 p. 4 Set Theory Basics.doc 1.4. A set is any unordered group of unique (no-repeats) pitch classes. Compare this to the concept of modes of limited transposition found in Messiaen’s theory. In this paper, Hook generalized some existing music theoretical concepts and greatly improved their notation. music theorists don’t create rules for writing music; they look for patterns in music that is already written.

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