the erythrocytes, the two buffer systems consist of hemoglobin/oxyhemoglobin and acid/alkali potassium salts of phosphoric acid. 0000003207 00000 n This is also found in plasma and erythrocyte but accounts only 5% of non bicarbonate buffer system in plasma. �BAAA�L��30�ui9 V;U�����a?� *�\lLBV���s�`�5c�A~�L���U5{NOHk� ���� �W%f�@� �m�X���r��@� � K� %PDF-1.4 %���� 0000021145 00000 n If this bicarbonate were not fully reabsorbed by the tubular system, there would be ongoing losses of essential buffer into the urine, resulting in progressive acidifi-cation of the body fluids as metabolic acid production continued. x��� x[Ź0. Bicarbonate is the principal physiological buffer in the plasma and it is freely filtered at the glomerulus. 0000052281 00000 n 0000006271 00000 n Buffer Systems in the Body. 0000081516 00000 n endstream endobj 93 0 obj <> endobj 94 0 obj <> endobj 95 0 obj <>stream 121 0 obj <>stream 0000006402 00000 n 10 0 obj <> endobj 0000006896 00000 n 0000052493 00000 n Buffers work because the concentrations of the weak acid An acid-base buffer typically consists of a weak acid, and its conjugate base (salt) (see Equations 2-4 in the blue box, below). 0 <<0D5CB68D5FBBB645A1EF7C20E9E63211>]/Prev 102358>> 92 0 obj <> endobj h�b```b``������z�A��b�,+֟c8������6;���;��p�N�1���Iy�V���CF�\Ya�J��^���j�� �P^ "YC#:::�B@�d&%ec n�b[~�GOXT��l�9iè�����/@p���J�l�{��g&�8�����ا��x! h�bbd``b`�$��N �r Hp� =� $8'�X5 ��R&ZA��XY@b�9#�k�Q�d�;� 8� & 0000001194 00000 n 0000007241 00000 n 0000082661 00000 n ve`ݬ�3� |A+� 71 0 obj <>stream physiological buffer (respiratory mechanism CO 2 excretion), renal mechanism (H+ excretion) act slowly and are the 2nd line of defense against pH shift. Phosphate buffer system: At physiological pH the ratio of cHPO 4 2-/cH 2 PO 4-is 4/1 (pK of 6.8). 0000021274 00000 n startxref Seems ill-suited and inefficient as many metabolic processes generate acids. 0000002789 00000 n 0000084567 00000 n 0000038853 00000 n v��������c�!��>$�갚Y]u LSEŠk��T��C���r[��^&�����f<5�����L�2_��_��%���Q؀������|:��Z�)�_��Z�G�س��A��}�f߲�5�\2ɓI�M.�x#Om��ļ�X�x��vi���"��l����b���))����-�=�����~*�F�"��"�����̋_�&M��Ir����~tQ�˔�Iטn����� %PDF-1.4 %���� The buffer … 39 33 the body: chemical buffer system (Bicarbonate buffer system, phosphate buffer, and protein buffer system) act rapidly and are the first line of defense against pH shift. 0000038413 00000 n hެY]sۺ}ׯ�[�VB~3�i����m��4Q'�}�(�bC�������_ܳ ��'�Lfd�$����g�"/~�(�};{���X�����(�i�b�q7a��ً�6by�ͫ��V9}��̺˪ {�o��i_���?�%OS�\�^�V��������%%w���}��}�uE]��)�{��l�"➓�d���>�rD� aQ���#'aNxʣWy�Y�ΰ���}Q��`m/��AVS~�Y�~� V�Y(CB�(`i�C��B|6r�鏌��@��#[⻺�X���-�~�����~�@��&캞��4ށ���V "x�`U�E@[��|=I���Z��y�'b��r/1(�рn��}�w����!�/c9�N��*k�MvP�E��9���m�A���EQ�������6j��#�a��Kv��m�|�e���W�e�v��`�8��+ʲ^�7D��I��69|m�٩Uj������D�$�`b���1�q-�Y�͗�A��5p�-��ɇ�5��o�;d㿪��\t�O\���q���/��}�"_��I��JJ$�mCJ=�l�a�j��ƊI�!բQ�!5\o�|�������$U�$C�ۺ6�ST�:u�u3Gb; �w����V��U�y8W���L��� ��[���]Ѳ���ke�Y.��})�y*��M�Tu�V���ػ�c��@y�ީS�&>�Q(�fI��m�$�������{�����H�v�L��S²���W�W�� �@U��6�J�uU䶗�`��hCq$Vʦ��r��6. the buffer), some of the weak-acid component of the buffer will dissociate and turn into the conjugate base (which is the weak-base component of the buffer) thus replenishing most of the protons removed. %%EOF 0000000816 00000 n 0000000016 00000 n 35 0 obj <>stream 0000051933 00000 n 0000001547 00000 n 0 The dissociation exponent pK1 for the first ionization stage of carbonic acid in the plasma at body temperature and an ionic strength of 0.16 is about 6.1. 0000024806 00000 n 0000001368 00000 n - But, we can regulate both CO 2 and HCO 3- @� �,1 xref 0000018566 00000 n 0000009934 00000 n 0000002824 00000 n ��H�X�!D73)ŤL�~�޾�Ӻ��d�- nڐ2 0000001535 00000 n It takes only seconds for the chemical buffers in the blood to make adjustments to pH. %PDF-1.5 %���� %%EOF 0000001789 00000 n 0000000016 00000 n 0000001324 00000 n trailer 0000051731 00000 n <<499AA8915BF0364D8537DEC2D3E4BE1E>]>> Hence, adding a small amount of acid or base to a buffer solution merely changes startxref endstream endobj startxref The buffer systems in the human body are extremely efficient, and different systems work at different rates. 0000001486 00000 n 0000002247 00000 n 0000000956 00000 n 0000087903 00000 n trailer 0000038207 00000 n endstream endobj 11 0 obj <> endobj 12 0 obj <>/MediaBox[0 0 595 842]/Parent 7 0 R/Resources 13 0 R/Rotate 0/Type/Page>> endobj 13 0 obj <>>> endobj 14 0 obj <> endobj 15 0 obj <>stream 0000007019 00000 n 0000082264 00000 n 10 26 The buffer value of this system is 55.6 mmol/L. 0000090879 00000 n 0000019398 00000 n endstream endobj 40 0 obj <> endobj 41 0 obj <> endobj 42 0 obj <>/ColorSpace<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC/ImageI]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 43 0 obj <> endobj 44 0 obj <> endobj 45 0 obj [/ICCBased 58 0 R] endobj 46 0 obj [/Indexed 45 0 R 25 67 0 R] endobj 47 0 obj [/Indexed 45 0 R 255 62 0 R] endobj 48 0 obj [/Indexed 45 0 R 183 65 0 R] endobj 49 0 obj <> endobj 50 0 obj <> endobj 51 0 obj <> endobj 52 0 obj <>stream 0000014557 00000 n %%EOF 0000014327 00000 n xref 0000001405 00000 n 0000002958 00000 n h�b```a``� ���@��(�����)4A�A��4O��M,��j�e`�������z(%� ���q``]4H�� �bs���˿�jĴDm�^���CXމ�uq>�f�. 0000003527 00000 n 0 - Major buffer in blood (pH 7.4) and other extracellular fluids is the carbonic acid/bicarbonate pair (See Clinical Notes, p. 43) - The pH of blood (7.4) is at the upper limit of the buffering capability of this system. h��VYo�@�+�a_k EJ�H�T�E+Uy0ɒ��l#ʿgf֛8��IxC�xg�^{�����`R���)�ê��q��'p�Y #X�& x�b```f``�e`e`�b`@ �� 'E�5�A1���t��5�S:7)�Żd���1�T�%g��:y��29!�iʢb��qY�Vdr����O姉@A�2A��#|�*W&�RP�qx>��&����]��0J�D�#:%:��r�(� 108 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<9363217B0233EE6BF074C7DD8A8DFF2D><2D4110B21BB9FA4485880F028050A25E>]/Index[92 30]/Info 91 0 R/Length 82/Prev 345222/Root 93 0 R/Size 122/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream 0000018100 00000 n 0000001086 00000 n 0000002913 00000 n 39 0 obj <> endobj 0000002868 00000 n (1) (2) (3) Acid-base buffers confer resistance to a change in the pH of a solution when hydrogen ions (protons) or hydroxide ions are added or removed. 0000017809 00000 n o H 3 NH 4 0000024566 00000 n 0000081708 00000 n ���d�wY�/'պ0L�3��mς�X^�o���w���P���f?��jY��j�o�jR��v?˛��>d�;�.65&��OYo�Tȓ_;�#m~*h[�^u����Ev��4��%��g��+B�dl�!�a4���$��)��:�q|��}�6��k�@��Z�0�q�:��y �!�>���gZ���8����S0� f0����Eϋ@��6�A5�ѡwڶ���[��7��x �4��. 0000006747 00000 n 0000003450 00000 n 0000019152 00000 n The respiratory tract can adjust the blood pH upward in minutes by exhaling CO 2 from the body. 0000015400 00000 n 0000018568 00000 n 0000018765 00000 n 0000014815 00000 n 0000039153 00000 n

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